microTESE or Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction is a surgical procedure that is applied to males without sperm cells in their semen. The lack of sperms cells may have several reasons, including:
- Obstruction in sperm tubes
- Lack of existence of sperm tubes
- Hormonal reasons
- Genetic reasons: the genes, which provide sperm production in men, are on the Y chromosome. The problems with these genes affect sperm production
- Radiation for cancer treatment may sometimes eliminate sperm production, and it can be permanent
- Medication, especially drugs used in cancer treatment may stop sperm production permanently
- Infections, such as ones that occur after Mumps
How is microTESE Procedure Done?
microTESE is a painless procedure that is applied under anesthesia. Tissue samples are taken from at least four different points of both testicles under a microscope. Those tissue samples go through a series of processes, and live sperm cells are separated. These cells are used in the microinjection procedure. microTESE procedure differs from testicular biopsy. In the biopsy, a sample is taken from a single point of the testicle. However, there may be sperm production in other parts of the testicles. Therefore, the sperm cells can be obtained through microTESE procedure from patients who had testicular biopsy but did not have sperm cells.
The sperm cells that are obtained as a result of microTESE are frozen and stored, and only then is the patient taken into the IVF treatment program. Otherwise, if no live sperms cells are found, it would be unnecessary to start the treatment with the female.
Freezing sperm cells does not violate the quality of them. Additionally, it prevents the necessity of having the procedure again when there is a need for second IVF attempt.
What To Do Before microTESE?
- Do not eat or drink anything for at least 6 hours before the operation (including water)
- Clean the operation area with a razor blade and have a bath.
- Bring a loose pair of pants as pressure on the testicles will cause pain after operation
What To Do After microTESE?
- Liquid food intake can resume within 3 hours after the operation
- You may have a bath on the 5th day after the operation
- You may not have sexual intercourse for one week
- You may use painkillers if you have pain
- Always report to your doctor if there is redness, swelling, or bleeding
Self-melting stitches are used during Micro TESE, so there is no stitching removal procedure. The patient is discharged 1-2 hours after the operation.
What are the Risks of microTESE?
After microTESE, live sperm cells may not be obtained, and this risk depends on the underlying cause. The chance of finding sperm in a patient with obstruction in the sperm tubes is higher than the patient with a hormonal or genetic problem. After surgery, it is very rare for there to be bleeding in the operation site.